References blogs 0020 to 0029
Updated: Mar 26, 2020
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fbLYDGXix8I&feature=youtu.be&fbclid=IwAR2zzcPYFwiYL-Z5DgBHUrNTRfQGpL-8jHF7vV-Q7a4DzfGtcGv0uO4EP2o Boosting Immunity Against Corona Virus With Top Doc, Dr Aseem Malhotra. 22 Mar 2020.
Don't stress, adopt of positive mindset and take action
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513238/ Relaxation Techniques - Box breathing. Jun 2019
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00245/full Stress and Immunity. Feb 2019. Stress may lead to disease states or fatal conditions, to persistently high cortisol and impaired anti-inflammatory effects on the immune system, resulting in chronic infection, inflammatory autoimmune diseases, or cancers and other disorders. Inhibits the cross talk of immune cells and signaling networks.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6189422/ Breath of Life: The Respiratory Vagal Stimulation Model of Contemplative Activity. Oct 2018
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6137615/ How Breath-Control Can Change Your Life: A Systematic Review on Psycho-Physiological Correlates of Slow Breathing. Sep 2018
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5769199/ Effect of Modified Slow Breathing Exercise on Perceived Stress and Basal Cardiovascular Parameters. Jan-Apr 2018
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5709795/ The physiological effects of slow breathing in the healthy human. Dec 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5455070/ The Effect of Diaphragmatic Breathing on Attention, Negative Affect and Stress in Healthy Adults. Jun 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27995346 The role of deep breathing on stress. Mar 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5072593/ The Effectiveness of Daily Mindful Breathing Practices on Test Anxiety of Students. Oct 2016
https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/stress. American Psychological Association. Stress Effects on the Body.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5736941/ Stress & the gut-brain axis: Regulation by the microbiome. Dec 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604320/ Breaking down the barriers: the gut microbiome, intestinal permeability and stress-related psychiatric disorders. Oct 2015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22772580/ Chronic psychosocial stress: does it modulate immunity to the influenza vaccine in Hong Kong Chinese elderly caregivers? Aug 2013
https://aacijournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1710-1492-4-1-2 Enhancing versus Suppressive Effects of Stress on Immune Function: Implications for Immunoprotection versus Immunopathology. Mar 2008. Chronic stress suppresses or dysregulates immune function and increases susceptibility to infections and cancer.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1361287/ Psychological Stress and the Human Immune System: A Meta-Analytic Study of 30 Years of Inquiry. Jul 2004
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12090368 Psychoneuroimmunology: psychological influences on immune function and health. Jun 2002
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11139000 Chronic stress modulates the immune response to a pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine. Nov-Dec 2000
https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199108293250903 Psychological Stress and Susceptibility to the Common Cold 29 Aug 1991. The rates of infections and colds increased with increases in stress levels. 74% to 90%, and 27% to 47% respectively.
https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/sleep/conditioninfo/how-much How much sleep do I need? Apr 2019.
https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/sleep/conditioninfo/inadequate-sleep How does inadequate sleep affect health? Apr 2019
https://www.cdc.gov/sleep/about_sleep/chronic_disease.html Sleep and Chronic Disease. Aug 2018
https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/JAHA.118.008552 Self‐Reported Sleep Duration and Quality and Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality: A Dose‐Response Meta‐Analysis. Aug 2018
https://www.intechopen.com/books/melatonin-molecular-biology-clinical-and-pharmaceutical-approaches/an-overview-of-melatonin-as-an-antioxidant-molecule-a-biochemical-approach An Overview of Melatonin as an Antioxidant Molecule: A Biochemical Approach. Jun 2018. Melatonin has a free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. It prevents degenerative changes in the central nervous system in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s and reduces free radical damage to DNA which may lead to cancer and other situations.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5768894/ Human immune system during sleep. Dec 2017. Sleep deprivation makes a living body susceptible to many infectious agents. Improve sleep habits to make immune system efficient for a healthy life.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27077395 Is Insomnia a Risk Factor for Decreased Influenza Vaccine Response? Jul-Aug 2017. Insomnia can be a risk factor for lowered immunity to the influenza virus.
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170127113010.htm Chronic sleep deprivation suppresses immune system. Jan 2017. Many people report getting sick when they don't get enough sleep. Shorter sleep duration depresses the immune system.
https://academic.oup.com/sleep/article/40/1/zsw019/2952682 Transcriptional Signatures of Sleep Duration Discordance in Monozygotic Twins. Jan 2017. Habitual short sleep dysregulates immune response and provides a potential link between sleep deprivation and adverse metabolic, cardiovascular, and inflammatory outcomes.
https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2016/p0215-enough-sleep.html 1 in 3 adults don’t get enough sleep. Feb 2016.
https://www.dreams.co.uk/sleep-matters-club/data-shows-a-shocking-worldwide-lack-of-sleep/ This Data Shows A Shocking Worldwide Lack of Sleep.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25642690 Annoyance, sleep and concentration problems due to combined traffic noise and the benefit of quiet side. Jan 2015
https://www.sleephealthjournal.org/article/S2352-7218%2815%2900015-7/abstract National Sleep Foundation’s sleep time duration recommendations: methodology and results summary. Dec 2014.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26483931 Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health? Dec 2014
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3902880/ Sleep Health: Can We Define It? Does It Matter? Jan 2014.
https://news.gallup.com/poll/166553/less-recommended-amount-sleep.aspx In U.S., 40% Get Less Than Recommended Amount of Sleep. Dec 2013
https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/blue-light-has-a-dark-side Blue light has a dark side May 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3256323/ Sleep and immune function. Jan 2012. Sleep and the circadian system exert a strong regulatory influence on immune functions. Specific role of sleep in the formation of immunological memory.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21193540 Exposure to room light before bedtime suppresses melatonin onset and shortens melatonin duration in humans. Mar 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3047226/ Exposure to Room Light before Bedtime Suppresses Melatonin Onset and Shortens Melatonin Duration in Humans. Mar 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21552190 The impact of light from computer monitors on melatonin levels in college students. 2011
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19139325 Sleep habits and susceptibility to the common cold. Jan 2009. Participants with less than 7 hours of sleep were 2.94 times more likely to develop a cold than those with 8 hours or more of sleep. Poorer sleep efficiency and shorter sleep duration in the weeks preceding exposure to a rhinovirus were associated with lower resistance to illness.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17969458 Sleep and mortality: a population-based 22-year follow-up study. Oct 2007
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17487258 The public health and safety consequences of sleep disorders. Jan 2007
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16842544 Blue blocker glasses impede the capacity of bright light to suppress melatonin production. Aug 2006
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16120101 Effects of playing a computer game using a bright display on presleep physiological variables, sleep latency, slow wave sleep and REM sleep. Sep 2005
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15164896 prospective study of sleep duration and mortality risk in women. May 2004
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1811316 Relative and combined effects of heat and noise exposure on sleep in humans. Feb 1991
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1986039 A preliminary study comparing sleep restriction and relaxation treatments for insomnia in older adults. Jan 1991
Go out in the sun to boost your vitamin D levels
https://www.who.int/uv/faq/uvhealtfac/en/index1.html The known health effects of UV - Are there beneficial effects of UV radiation? World Health Organization. Some UV radiation is essential to the body as it stimulates the production of vitamin D. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in immune function. 15 minutes of casual sun exposure of hands, face and arms two to three times a week during the summer months is sufficient to keep your vitamin D levels high.
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-46036-8 Nitric oxide acts as an antioxidant and inhibits programmed cell death induced by aluminum in the root tips of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Jul 2019. NO can improve the activities of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes to scavenge excess ROS.
https://thewellesleynews.com/2019/05/09/sunlight-can-make-you-happier-and-less-stressed/ Sunlight can make you happier and less stressed. May 2019
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30675873/?from_single_result=30675873 Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Acute Respiratory Infections: Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis. Jan 2019. Vitamin D supplementation was safe and protected against ARIs overall. Very deficient individuals experienced the benefit.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30087817/ Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Associated Risk Factors in the US Population (2011-2012). Jun 2018. Vitamin D deficiency plays a role in cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis....
Forest Bathing: How Trees Can Help You Find Health and Happiness. A book by Dr. Qing. April 2018
http://sunlightinstitute.org/tag/nitric-oxide/ MOOD AND SUNLIGHT, SAFELY SOAK IT UP. Feb 2018. Around midday, we produce large quantities of vitamin D, and our nitric oxide levels increase.
https://journalistsresource.org/studies/society/public-health/daylight-windows-productivity-stress-health-depression/ Daylight, windows and workers’ well-being: Research review. Sep 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5593895/ Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Production of Nitric Oxide: A multi-cell and multi-donor analysis. Sep 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28601861 Electrical Grounding Improves Vagal Tone in Preterm Infants. Jun 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28202713 Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. Feb 2017. Vitamin D supplementation was safe and it protected against acute respiratory tract infection overall. Patients very vitamin D deficient experienced the most benefit.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4877070/ Why We Need More Nature at Work: Effects of Natural Elements and Sunlight on Employee Mental Health and Work Attitudes. May 2016
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5871211/ Prevention and Treatment of Influenza, Influenza-Like Illness, and Common Cold by Herbal, Complementary, and Natural Therapies. Apr 2016. Grounding and earthing anti-inflammatory and antioxidant and accelerated immune response following vaccination.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4378297/ The effects of grounding (earthing) on inflammation, the immune response, wound healing, and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Mar 2015
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022202X15368974 An Unexpected Role: UVA-Induced Release of Nitric Oxide from Skin May Have Unexpected Health Benefits. Jul 2014. UVA causing release of nitric oxide from skin stores, with additional benefits on human health.
https://www.dovepress.com/the-effects-of-grounding-earthing-on-inflammation-the-immune-response--peer-reviewed-article-JIR The effects of grounding (earthing) on inflammation, the immune response, wound healing, and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Jun 2014. Electrically conductive contact of the human body with the surface of the Earth produces positive effects on physiology and health, in relation inflammation, immune responses, and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
https://heartmdinstitute.com/q-a/grounding-q-a/ Grounding Q & A. HeartMD Institute. 2013
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3166406/ Vitamin D and the Immune System. Aug 2012. Vitamin D can modulate our immune responses. Deficiency in vitamin D is associated with increased autoimmunity as well as an increased susceptibility to infection. Beneficial effects of supplementing vitamin D deficient individuals with autoimmune disease.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3283670/ The Nitric Oxide Pathway Provides Innate Antiviral Protection in Conjunction with the Type I Interferon Pathway in Fibroblasts. Feb 2012. Nitric oxide is critical for the protection against DNA viruses and protects the host against viral infection.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3265077/ Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth’s Surface Electrons. Jan 2012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2290997/ Benefits of Sunlight: A Bright Spot for Human Health. Apr 2008
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17903349 Forest bathing enhances human natural killer activity and expression of anti-cancer proteins. Apr-Jun 2007
https://www.jaad.org/article/S0190-9622(05)04596-2/fulltext The vitamin D questions: how much do you need and how should you get it? Feb 2006. Vit D effects and the risk/benefit of obtaining vit D from sun exposure versus diet or supplementation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16443165 Nitric oxide as a cellular antioxidant: a little goes a long way. Nov 2005. Nitric oxide is an effective antioxidant.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15650465 The biologic effects of grounding the human body during sleep as measured by cortisol levels and subjective reporting of sleep, pain, and stress. Oct 2004
http://www.next-up.org/pdf/ESD_Journal_Grounding_the_human_body_to_neutralize_bioelectrical_stress_from_static_electricity_and_EMFs.pdf Grounding the human body to neutralize bioelectrical stress from static electricity and EMFs. 29 Sep 2000
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10023767 An antiviral mechanism of nitric oxide: inhibition of a viral protease. Jan 1999. Nitric oxide kills or inhibits the replication of a variety of pathogens. NO inhibits protease activity and interrupts the viral life cycle.
Start cooking your own wholesome meals
https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/antiviral-herbs 15 Impressive Herbs with Antiviral Activity. Oct 2019. Many herbs help fight viruses and are favored by practitioners of natural medicine. Oregano, sage, basil, fennel, garlic, peppermint, rosemary, ginger...
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41392-019-0074-5 Demystifying the manipulation of host immunity, metabolism, and extraintestinal tumors by the gut microbiome. Oct 2019. Involvement of the gut microbiome in host immunity and metabolism, the effects of the microbiome on extraintestinal cancers and the immune response, and strategies to modulate the gut microbiome.
https://neurohacker.com/how-the-gut-microbiota-influences-our-immune-system How the gut microbiota influences our immune system. Jul 2019. 70–80% of the body’s immune cells are found in the gut. A healthy microbiota produces molecular signals that support the development of immune cells. A healthy crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the immune system supports protective responses against pathogens, promotes tolerance to harmless microbes.
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2019/2125070/ A Review of the Science of Colorful, Plant-Based Food and Practical Strategies for “Eating the Rainbow”. Jun 2019. Spices have been shown to have prebiotic potential for the gut bacteria. Red Foods against inflammation and for anti-inflammatory properties, and immune system modulation. Ensuring the consumption of a variety of foods will enable the individual to sample from thousands of phytochemicals that may help to offset an increased risk of chronic disease.
https://www.vet.k-state.edu/OneHealth/Vol10-Iss2/microbiome_pigs.html Connecting the Gut Microbiome with Response to Infectious Respiratory Disease in Humans and Pigs. The gut microbiome plays a critical role in providing a protective intestinal barrier, digesting and metabolizing nutrients, and developing as well as maintaining immunity.
https://www.health24.com/Medical/Flu/Preventing-flu/your-gut-is-the-cornerstone-of-your-immune-system-20160318 Your gut is the cornerstone of your immune system. Oct 2017. 70 to 80% of your immune tissue is situated in your digestive tract.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28799796 Immune modulation by curcumin: The role of interleukin-10. Sep 2017. Curcumin is a natural anti-inflammatory compound able to modulate the disease pathophysiology of conditions such as pain and neurodegenerative diseases, bowel inflammation, and allergy, but also of infections and cancer.
https://science.sciencemag.org/content/357/6350/498 The microbial metabolite desaminotyrosine protects from influenza through type I interferon. Aug 2017. Eat more plants for influenza resilience. Antibiotic treatment worsens influenza because the concomitant loss of the microbiota interrupts the production of bioactive metabolites. Plant flavonoids are beneficial during influenza and augment antiviral responses by phagocytic cells.
https://www.nature.com/articles/nature18847 The microbiome and innate immunity. Jul 2016. The intestinal microbiome is a signalling hub that integrates environmental inputs, such as diet, with genetic and immune signals to affect the host's metabolism, immunity and response to infection. Aberrations in the communication between the innate immune system and the gut microbiota might contribute to complex diseases.
https://gut.bmj.com/content/65/4/575 The gut microbiota plays a protective role in the host defence against pneumococcal pneumonia. Apr 2016. The intestinal microbiota is a protective mediator during pneumococcal pneumonia.
https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/research/advancements-in-research/fundamentals/in-depth/the-gut-where-bacteria-and-immune-system-meet The Gut: Where Bacteria and Immune System Meet. Nov 2015. The composition of the gut changes in different diseases. The body’s immune system interacts with these bacteria.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4032839/ Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines. Jan-Mar 2014. Many natural products and herbal ingredients are observed to possess robust antiviral activity.
http://www.eurekaselect.com/124216/article Antiviral Herbs - Present and Future. 2014. TCM has obvious advantages in the treatment of virus infectious disease and has a broad prospect of application. Anti-SARS-CoV and anti-respiratory viruses. TCM is better than using drugs in the treatment of viral diseases.
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/96/6/1429/4571488 Effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on immune function in older people: a randomized controlled trial. Nov 2012. Increased fruit and vegetable intake improves the Pneumovax II vaccination antibody response.
https://science.sciencemag.org/content/336/6086/1268 Interactions Between the Microbiota and the Immune System. Jun 2012. Resident bacteria profoundly shape immunity.
https://www.pnas.org/content/108/13/5354 Microbiota regulates immune defense against respiratory tract influenza A virus infection. Mar 2011. Commensal microbiota composition critically regulates the generation of virus-specific cells and antibody responses following respiratory influenza virus infection.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC538513/ Modulation of Immune Functions by Foods. Dec 2004. Foods are able to modulate immune functions and can normalize the physical state of allergic patients or cancer patients, and may reduce the risk of diseases in healthy individuals.
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society/article/effects-of-dietary-antioxidants-on-the-immune-function-of-middleaged-adults/F3D310A4010D6A8B68C8A9874F8A84A1 Effects of dietary antioxidants on the immune function of middle-aged adults. Feb 1999. Adequate amounts of antioxidants are required to prevent damage to the immune cells themselves. They can be obtained directly from the diet. Strong associations between diets rich in antioxidant nutrients and a reduced incidence of cancer. Focusing on the antioxidant vitamins C and E, Selenium, carotenoids.
https://www.centerforfoodsafety.org/issues/311/ge-foods/ge-food-and-your-health GE food & your health. Health risks posed by GMO include Toxicity, Allergic Reactions, Antibiotic Resistance, Immuno-suppression, Cancer and Loss of Nutrition.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2640516/pdf/jnma00873-0052.pdf Tremendous antimicrobial, especially antiviral activity of compounds in garlic. Profound effects on the immune system.
https://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/8/7/246/pdf Bioactive Compounds and Biological Functions of Garlic. 5 Jul 2019. Garlic exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, immunomodulatory, and many more properties.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26764332 Aged Garlic Extract Modifies Human Immunity. Feb 2016. Garlic can influence immunity. 2.56 g AGE/d for 90 d during the cold and flu season. After 90 d, reduced cold and flu severity.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4417560/ Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds. 19 Apr 2015. Garlic stimulates immune cells. Human clinical studies are scarce and weak.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6465033/ Garlic for the common cold. 11 Nov 2014. And https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22419312 Garlic for the common cold. 14 Mar 2012. 24 colds in garlic group vs 65 in placebo, fewer days of illness (111 versus 366), quicker recovery (4.63 versus 5.63).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4103721/ Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects. Jan-Feb 2014. Issues in existing studies, more standard experiments needed to confirm beneficial effect of garlic.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11697022 Preventing the common cold with a garlic supplement: a double-blind, placebo-controlled survey. Jul-Aug 2001. Significantly fewer colds (24 vs 65), duration (1.52 vs 5.01 days).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2640516/pdf/jnma00873-0052.pdf Antimicrobial and immune modulatory legacy of Echinacea and garlic. Jan 2000. Tremendous antimicrobial, especially antiviral activity of compounds in both herbs. Profound effects on the immune system.
Reduce sugar and carbohydrates and do NOT snack between meals
https://academic.oup.com/qjmed/article/112/2/101/5133268 High blood glucose variability is associated with bacteremia and mortality in patients hospitalized with acute infection. Oct 2018. Increased glucose levels variability is associated with increased risk of bacteremia, short and long-term mortality.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29727694 A high-sugar diet affects cellular and humoral immune responses in Drosophila. Jul 2018. Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens and parasites. A high-sugar diet induced the aberrant activation of the innate immune system, including inflammation.
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-abstract/26/11/1180/4732762?redirectedFrom=fulltext Role of sugars in human neutrophilic phagocytosis. Nov 1973. The function but not the number of phagocytes was altered by ingestion of sugars, which implicates glucose and other simple carbs in the control of phagocytosis. On the other hand, a fast of 36 or 60 hr significantly increased the phagocytic index.
Intermittent fasting / time restricting eating
https://thesource.com/2018/11/21/fasting-for-72-hours-can-reset-your-entire-immune-system/ Fasting for 72 hours can reset your entire immune system. Nov 2018. Fasting for three days can have a significant improvement in your body’s health. Sgnificant improvement in their health as the white blood cells and other toxins in the body were flushed out by the fast.
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0136240 Frequency and Circadian Timing of Eating May Influence Biomarkers of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance Associated with Breast Cancer Risk. Aug 2015. Eating more frequently, reducing evening energy intake, and fasting for longer nightly intervals may lower systemic inflammation and subsequently reduce breast cancer risk. More research needed.
https://jandonline.org/article/S2212-2672(15)00205-1/fulltext Intermittent Fasting and Human Metabolic Health. Aug 2015.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24739093 Time-restricted feeding and risk of metabolic disease: a review of human and animal studies. May 2014. Time-restricted feeding is associated with reductions in body weight, lower triglycerides, lower LDL, higher HDL, glucose, insulin, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis and improvements in insulin sensitivity. Promise for the use of TRF in modulating a variety of metabolic disease risk factors.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24612255 Intermittent fasting promotes bacterial clearance and intestinal IgA production in Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice. May 2014. The changes following metabolic stress induced by intermittent fasting during food deprivation days increased the resistance to S. typhimurium infection by triggering intestinal IgA production and presumably, pathogen elimination by phagocytic inflammatory cells.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3106288/ Short-term fasting induces profound neuronal autophagy. Aug 2010. Sporadic fasting might represent a simple, safe and inexpensive means to promote this potentially therapeutic neuronal response.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568163706000523?via%3Dihub Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting: Two potential diets for successful brain aging. Aug 2006. CR and IF benefit neurons including by involving insulin-like signaling, increasing the production of neurotrophic factors and antioxidant enzymes, all of which help cells cope with stress and resist disease.
Exercise most days
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31193280 The compelling link between physical activity and the body's defense system. May 2019. With near daily exercise, summation effect to enhance immune defense activity and metabolic health. Intense and prolonged exercise can cause transient immune dysfunction by decreasing immune cell metabolic capacity. Inverse relationship between moderate exercise training and incidence of URTI. Regular physical activity is associated with decreased mortality and incidence rates for influenza and pneumonia. Regular exercise training has an overall anti-inflammatory influence.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29713319 Debunking the Myth of Exercise-Induced Immune Suppression: Redefining the Impact of Exercise on Immunological Health Across the Lifespan. Apr 2018. Regular physical activity reduces the incidence of many chronic diseases in older age, including communicable diseases such as viral and bacterial infections. Frequent exercise enhances-rather than suppresses-immune competency.
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180308143123.htm A lifetime of regular exercise slows down aging, study finds. 8 Mar 2018. Those who have exercised regularly have defied the aging process, having the immunity, muscle mass, testosterone levels, body fat and cholesterol levels of a young person.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2803113/ Exercise and Respiratory Tract Viral Infections. Oct 2009. Prolonged, intense exercise causes immunosuppression, while moderate intensity exercise improves immune function and potentially reduces risk and severity of respiratory viral infection. Moderate exercise-induced increases in stress hormones reduce excessive local inflammation and improved outcomes following respiratory viral infection.
https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.00008.2007 Immune function in sport and exercise. Aug 2007. Regular moderate exercise is associated with a reduced incidence of infection compared with a completely sedentary state. However, prolonged bouts of strenuous exercise cause a temporary depression of various aspects of immune function. Intensified training lasting 1 wk or more may result in longer lasting immune dysfunction, which may compromise resistance to common minor illnesses, such as up/respiratory tract infection. Long-term health benefits of regular exercise.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1894397 Overtraining increases the susceptibility to infection. Jun 1991. Moderate exercise is good for the immune system, but the demanding training programs of many top athletes may suppress the immune system and thereby increase susceptibility to infections. Exercising hard during the incubation phase of an infection can increase the severity of the illness.
Supplement to optimise your immune system
https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/182/Supplement_1/S5/2191448 Micronutrients and Innate Immunity. Sep 2000. Micronutrients such as zinc, selenium, iron, copper, β-carotene, vitamins A, C, and E, and folic acid can influence several components of innate immunity . Deficiencies in zinc and vitamins A and D may reduce natural killer cell function, whereas supplemental zinc or vitamin C may enhance their activity.
https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/bF2YhJKiOfe1yimBc4XwOA Expert consensus on comprehensive treatment of coronavirus disease in Shanghai 2019 - Shanghai Medical Association. Mar 2020. Large doses of vitamin C are injected intravenously at a dose of 100 to 200 mg / kg per day.
https://www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/chinese-medical-team-report-successful-treatment-coronavirus-patients-high-dose-v0? Chinese Medical Team Report Successful Treatment of Coronavirus Patients with High-Dose Vitamin C. Mar 2020. A medical team in China has reported the successful treatment of coronavirus patients with vitamin C. Early application of vitamin C can have a strong antioxidant effect, reduce inflammatory responses, and improve endothelial function. Can improve antiviral levels and prevent and treat acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress.
http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v16n12.shtml?fbclid=IwAR3pihhbw_d_4StI9VBCG3aCh0fKBH102Zhv2ckc2MYfNjFU0Inmdjt9HiE Three Intravenous Vitamin C Research Studies Approved for Treating COVID-19. Feb 2020. Intravenous vitamin C is already being employed in China against COVID-19 coronavirus.
http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v16n11.shtml Early Large Dose Intravenous Vitamin C is the Treatment of Choice for 2019-nCov Pneumonia. Feb 2020. Coronaviruses, influenza viruses and many other pandemic viral infections are usually associated with an increase oxidative stress leasing to oxidative cellular damage resulting in multi-organ failure. Antioxidants administration therefore has a central role in the management of these conditions. Preliminary clinical studies and case reports show that early administration of high dose IVC can improve clinical conditions of patients in ICU, ARDS and flu.
http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v16n07.shtml Hospital-based Intravenous Vitamin C Treatment for Coronavirus and Related Illnesses. Feb 2020. Prompt administration of intravenous vitamin C, in high doses, can make the difference. Abundant clinical evidence confirms vitamin C's effectiveness when used in sufficient quantity.
https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/vitamin-c/faq-20058030 Is it possible to take too much vitamin C? Mar 2020. For most people, an orange or a cup of strawberries, chopped red pepper, or broccoli provides enough vitamin C for the day. For adults, the recommended up/limit is 2,000 mg a day. Too much dietary vitamin C is unlikely to be harmful but megadoses of vitamin C supplements might cause: Diarrhea, Nausea, Vomiting, Heartburn, Abdominal cramps, Headache, Insomnia.
https://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13054-019-2717-x Adjuvant vitamin C for sepsis: mono or triple? Dec 2019. Potential role for high-dose i.v. vitamin C for sepsis.
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/325067 What are the best foods for vitamin C? Apr 2019.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6201324/ Vitamin C in the critically ill - indications and controversies. Oct 2018. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is as a potent anti-oxidant and a modulator of immune cell biology. High-dose vitamin C administration may improve survival in critically ill patients.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6057395/ Extra Dose of Vitamin C Based on a Daily Supplementation Shortens the Common Cold: A Meta-Analysis of 9 Randomized Controlled Trials. 5 Jul 2018. Extra doses at the onset of cold reduced cold duration (-0.56) and relieved the symptoms, including chest pain (-0.40), fever (-0.45), and chills (-0.36).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5949172/ Self-Care for Common Colds: The Pivotal Role of Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Zinc, and Echinacea in Three Main Immune Interactive Clusters (Physical Barriers, Innate and Adaptive Immunity) Involved during an Episode of Common Colds—Practical Advice on Dosages and on the Time to Take These Nutrients/Botanicals in order to Prevent or Treat Common Colds. 29 Apr 2018. Vitamin C supplementation (1 to 2 g/day) reduced the duration (in adults by 8%, in children by 14%) and the severity of the cold.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279544/ Common colds: Does vitamin C keep you healthy? 14 Apr 2016. Vitamin C did not prevent colds but shortened the duration by about 10% and milder symptoms, if taken preventively. It didn’t shorten the duration when taken only one ill.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3659258/ Vitamin C Is an Essential Factor on the Anti-viral Immune Responses through the Production of Interferon-α/β at the Initial Stage of Influenza A Virus (H3N2) Infection. Apr 2013. Vitamin C shows anti-viral immune responses against influenza virus.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23440782 Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. 31 Jan 2013. Duration of colds was reduced by 8% in adults and 14% to 18% in children with 1 to 2 g/day vitamin C. The severity was also reduced.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22429343 A combination of high-dose vitamin C plus zinc for the common cold. 2012. Vitamin C and zinc play important roles in immune defence and people are often deficient. 1000 mg vitamin C plus 10 mg zinc resulted in reduction of rhinorrhoea duration (range 9-27%) and symptom relief was quicker.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3024156/?report=reader Complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of the common cold. Jan 2011. Systematic Reviews were searched from January 1966 to September 2009. For prevention, vitamin C demonstrated benefit, especially in patients subjected to cold stress.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2099400/ Vitamin C may affect lung infections. Nov 2007. Preventive effect and therapeutic effect of vitamin C against pneumonia. Vitamin C was tested over and above the normal medication, which included antibiotics.
https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/90495 Immune-Enhancing Role of Vitamin C and Zinc and Effect on Clinical Conditions. Feb 2006. Both nutrients play important roles in immune function and the modulation of host resistance to infectious agents, reducing the risk, severity, and duration of infectious diseases. Intakes of up to 1 g of vitamin C and up to 30 mg of zinc ameliorate symptoms and shorten the duration of respiratory tract infections including the common cold. Vitamin C and zinc reduce the incidence and improve the outcome of pneumonia, malaria, and diarrhea infections.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10796569 Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. 2000. Thirty trials. Vitamin C in doses as high as one gram daily for several winter months, had no consistent beneficial effect on incidence of the cold. Modest effect on duration from 0.07% to 39% (weighted difference of 8% to 9%). Larger dose produced greater benefits than lower doses.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10543583 The effectiveness of vitamin C in preventing and relieving the symptoms of virus-induced respiratory infections. Oct 1999. 1000 mg of Vitamin C for the first 6 hours and then 3 times daily thereafter decreased flu and cold symptoms by 85%.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5949172/ Self-Care for Common Colds: The Pivotal Role of Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Zinc, and Echinacea in Three Main Immune Interactive Clusters (Physical Barriers, Innate and Adaptive Immunity) Involved during an Episode of Common Colds—Practical Advice on Dosages and on the Time to Take These Nutrients/Botanicals in order to Prevent or Treat Common Colds. 29 Apr 2018. Zinc supplementation may shorten the duration of colds by 33%, taken within 24 hours of onset of symptoms.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5418896/ Zinc lozenges and the common cold: a meta-analysis comparing zinc acetate and zinc gluconate, and the role of zinc dosage. May 2017. Cold duration was 33% shorter for the zinc groups of the seven trials (zinc acetate -40% and zinc gluconate -28%). No evidence doses >100 mg/day lead to greater efficacy.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4359576/ The effectiveness of high dose zinc acetate lozenges on various common cold symptoms: a meta-analysis. 25 Feb 2015. Zinc acetate lozenges of about 80 mg/day, started within 24 hours shortened duration of nasal discharge by 34%, nasal congestion by 37%, sneezing by 22%, scratchy throat by 33%, sore throat by 18%, hoarseness by 43%, cough by 46%, muscle ache by 54% but no difference in the duration of headache and fever.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23775705 Zinc for the common cold. 18 Jun 2013. Intake of zinc significantly reduced the duration (-1.03d) but not the severity of cold symptoms. Less participants symptomatic after 7 days of treatment (odds ratio 0.45). Lower incidence of colds (0.64) but heterogeneity of the data.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22429343 A combination of high-dose vitamin C plus zinc for the common cold. 2012. Vitamin C and zinc play important roles in immune defence and health. Intake of both is often inadequate. Reduction of rhinorrhoea duration (range 9-27%). Symptom relief was quicker.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22566526 Zinc for the treatment of the common cold: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. 10 Jul 2012. Zinc formulations shortened duration of cold (-1.65 days) but heterogeneity was high: -2.63 days in adults, but only -0.26 in children.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3273967/ Zinc for the common cold—not if, but when. Nov 2011. Zinc supplements within 24 hours of the onset of a cold significantly reduces duration and severity of symptoms. Effectiveness of zinc for prophylaxis of the cold in children.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21328251 Zinc for the common cold. 16 Feb 2011. Zinc administered within 24 hours of onset of symptoms reduces the duration (-0.97) and severity (-0.39) of the cold. When supplemented for at least five months, it reduces cold incidence in children.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3024156/?report=reader Complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of the common cold. Jan 2011. Systematic Reviews were searched from January 1966 to September 2009. Zinc lozenges were effective in 5 of 9 trials, likely owing to dose and formulation issues.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2866616/ Zinc intake and resistance to H1N1 influenza. Jun 2010. 1 in 5 people are deficient in zinc. Zinc deficiency decreases immunity. Zinc treatment efficacious for a variety of infections. Zinc stimulates generation of natural killer and cytolytic T cells that kill viruses and bacteria. Suppresses a receptor for viruses. Participants with plasma concentrations of zinc >70 μg/dL had a significantly lower risk of pneumonia.
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mohammad_Vahedian2/publication/43559997_Effects_of_Zinc_Supplementation_in_Occurrence_and_Duration_of_Common_Cold_in_School_Aged_Children_During_Cold_Season_a_Double-Blind_Placebo-Controlled_Trial/links/0deec526f5a99c9b3a000000.pdf Effects of Zinc Supplementation in Occurrence and Duration of Common Cold in School Aged Children during Cold Season: a DoubleBlind PlaceboControlled Trial. Dec 2009. Lower incidence of cold in zinc group (1.37 vs 3.15 in placebo group) and less antibiotics for bacterial infections (20 vs 47).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16982486 The prophylactic and therapeutic effectiveness of zinc sulphate on common cold in children. Oct 2006. Number of colds in the zinc group significantly less than placebo (1.2 vs 1.7 colds) and also shorter duration and decreased severity.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15496046 Efficacy of zinc against common cold viruses: an overview. Zinc reduced duration and severity of cold when administered within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms. administered within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms.
https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1008072 Lung transcriptional unresponsiveness and loss of early influenza virus control in infected neonates is prevented by intranasal Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. 11 Oct 2019. Lactobacillus rhamnosus considerably improves mice survival after influenza virus infection.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5790137/ The influence of prebiotic or probiotic supplementation on antibody titers after influenza vaccination: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. 25 Jan 2018. Patients with prebiotics/probiotics supplements show higher vaccine efficacy.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5707647/ Effect of Probiotics and Prebiotics on Immune Response to Influenza Vaccination in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nov 2017. Probiotics and prebiotics are effective in elevating immunogenicity by influencing seroconversion and seroprotection rates in adults inoculated with influenza vaccines.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25927096 Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections. Feb 2015. Probiotics were better than placebo in reducing the number of participants experiencing episodes of acute URTI, the mean duration of an episode of acute URTI, antibiotic use and cold-related school absence. However, the quality of the evidence was low.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25604727/ Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 results in a greater proportion of healthy days and a lower percentage of academically stressed students reporting a day of cold/flu: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Feb 2015. The proportion of participants reporting a cold on any given day was lower at weeks 2 and 3 with B. bifidum and B. infantis. Daily intake of bifidobacteria provides benefit related to cold/flu outcomes during acute stress.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25400245 Consecutive oral administration of Bifidobacterium longum MM-2 improves the defense system against influenza virus infection by enhancing natural killer cell activity in a murine model. Jan 2015. Improved clinical symptoms, reduced mortality, suppressed inflammation in the lower respiratory tract, and decreased virus titers, cell death, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Significant increases in NK cell activities.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25294223 Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus brevis KB290 on incidence of influenza infection among schoolchildren: an open-label pilot study. Dec 2014. Lower incidence of influenza (15.7% vs 23.9%), especially in unvaccinated.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24780623 Effectiveness of probiotics on the duration of illness in healthy children and adults who develop common acute respiratory infectious conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Jul 2014. Significantly fewer numbers of days of illness per person, shorter illness by almost a day, and fewer numbers of days absent from day care/school/work in participants who received a probiotics. Evidence from a number of good-quality RCT that probiotics reduce the duration of illness in otherwise healthy children and adults.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4006993/ Probiotics and immune health. May 2014. One of the major mechanisms of probiotic action is through the regulation of host immune response. Probiotics showed therapeutic potential for diseases, such as allergy, eczema, viral infection and potentiating vaccination responses.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24717726 Oral administration of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 is effective for preventing influenza in mice. 10 Apr 2014. Weight losses were lower, the virus titer was significantly decreased and also IL-6. The expression of genes critical for the viral clearance was increased. LG2055 effective against influenza virus infection by the down-regulation of viral replication through the induction of antiviral genes expression.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24466081 Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum strain AYA enhances IgA secretion and provides survival protection against influenza virus infection in mice. Jan 2014. Lactobacillus plantarum AYA promotes IgA production with protective ability, mice surviving longer with influenza virus infection.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24329975 Oral administration of Lactobacillus brevis KB290 to mice alleviates clinical symptoms following influenza virus infection. Jan 2014. Prophylactically administered KB290 significantly alleviated deterioration due to infection. Levels of (Ig)A significantly increased as well as interferon (IFN)-α.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24124485 Lactobacillus plantarum DK119 as a probiotic confers protection against influenza virus by modulating innate immunity. 4 Oct 2013. DK119 conferred 100% protection against subsequent lethal infection with influenza A viruses, prevented significant weight loss, and lowered lung viral loads in a mouse model. Modulated immunity of dendritic and macrophage cells, and cytokine production, with antiviral effects on influenza virus infection.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23594927 Anti-influenza virus effects of both live and non-live Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 accompanied by the activation of innate immunity. 18 Apr 2013. Virus titres were repressed. Natural killer activity significantly higher. Greater repression of virus proliferation. Enhancement of NK activity by stimulating various antiviral cytokines and chemokines.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23535544 Protective efficacy of orally administered, heat-killed Lactobacillus pentosus b240 against influenza A virus. 2013. No effect of b240 on virus growth but regulates antiviral gene expression in mouse lungs.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22642647 Oral administration of milk fermented with Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris FC protects mice against influenza virus infection. Aug 2012. Survival rate significantly improved with fermented milk. Virus titre significantly decreased. Protect animals against IFV infection.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22440853 Efficacy of daily intake of Lactobacillus casei Shirota on respiratory symptoms and influenza vaccination immune response: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in healthy elderly nursing home residents. May 2012. No effect of the probiotic on the respiratory symptoms. No significant difference on vaccination immune.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22732975 Lactobacillus plantarum CECT7315 and CECT7316 stimulate immunoglobulin production after influenza vaccination in elderly. Mar-Apr 2012. Consumption of L. plantarum during 3 months after influenza vaccination increased the levels of IgA and IgG antibodies.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22098223 Heat-killed Lactobacillus gasseri TMC0356 protects mice against influenza virus infection by stimulating gut and respiratory immune responses. Mar 2012. Symptoms of mice ameliorated significantly; virus titres decreased significantly; mRNA expression of interleukins and others increased significantly. By enhancing gut and respiratory immune responses.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21901706 Probiotics for preventing acute up/respiratory tract infections. 7 Sep 2011. 14 RCTs. Probiotics reduced the number of acute URTIs.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19615959 A probiotic fermented dairy drink improves antibody response to influenza vaccination in the elderly in two randomised controlled trials. 18 Sep 2009. Influenza-specific antibody titres increased after vaccination.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19651563 Probiotic effects on cold and influenza-like symptom incidence and duration in children. Aug 2009. Probiotics reduced fever incidence by 53.0% to 72.7% (single or multiple strain), coughing incidence by 41.4% to 62.1% and rhinorrhea incidence by 28.2% to 58.8%. Fever, coughing, and rhinorrhea duration decreased significantly, by 32% to 48%. Daily dietary probiotic supplementation for 6 months is a safe way to reduce incidence and duration, for children aged 3 to 5.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17352961 Oral intake of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 enhances the effects of influenza vaccination. Mar 2007. Increase in the proportion of natural killer cells, in T-hel/type 1 cytokine concentrations and in T-hel/and T-cytotoxic proportions. Significant increase in antigen specific igA. Lower incidence of flu during 5 mo after vaccination.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31126553 Echinacea for the prevention and treatment of up/respiratory tract infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Jun 2019. Prevention of up/respiratory tract infection of 0.78. Reduction of duration URTI of -0.45 days. Echinacea might have a preventative effect on the incidence of URTI. But methodological heterogeneity.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5949172/ Self-Care for Common Colds: The Pivotal Role of Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Zinc, and Echinacea in Three Main Immune Interactive Clusters (Physical Barriers, Innate and Adaptive Immunity) Involved during an Episode of Common Colds—Practical Advice on Dosages and on the Time to Take These Nutrients/Botanicals in order to Prevent or Treat Common Colds. 29 Apr 2018. Regarding Echinacea, prophylactic treatment (2400 mg/day) over 4 months appeared to be beneficial for preventing/treating colds.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28279802 Prevention of influenza virus induced bacterial superinfection by standardized Echinacea purpurea, via regulation of surface receptor expression in human bronchial epithelial cells. 7 Mar 2017. Echinacea purpurea can reduce the risk of respiratory complications by preventing virus-induced bacterial adhesion and through the inhibition of inflammation super-stimulation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4528044/ Effect of an Echinacea-Based Hot Drink Versus Oseltamivir in Influenza Treatment: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Multicenter, Noninferiority Clinical Trial. Dec 2015. Recovery from illness was comparable Echinaforce Hotdrink and oseltamivir for flu infections. Fewer adverse events (particularly nausea and vomiting) with Echinaforce.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4068831/ Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. 20 Feb 2014. 24 trials variety of Echinacea preparations based on different species and parts of plant were used. 10 to 20% reduction of colds and 1/7 reduction duration. Heterogeneity of the studies.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3056276/ Echinacea for treating the common cold: A randomized controlled trial. 14 Mar 2014. Echinacea reduced duration (-0.53 day) and lower severity but not statistically significant.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22502621 Use of a standardized extract from Echinacea angustifolia (Polinacea) for the prevention of respiratory tract infections. Mar 2012. Mixed results due to the use of different species and/or plant parts for the preparations. Polinacea could enhance the immune response subsequent to the influenza vaccination.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22131823 Applications of the phytomedicine Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower) in infectious diseases. Oct 2011. Extracts of Echinacea purpurea display multiple immune-modulatory activities and suppression of the proinflammatory responses of epithelial cells to viruses and bacteria.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4058675/ Echinacea—A Source of Potent Antivirals for Respiratory Virus Infections. Jul 2011. Preparations derived from certain species and plant parts, but not all of them, possess potent antiviral activities. All strains of viruses tested (including a Tamiflu-resistant strain) were very sensitive to Echinacea purpurea. Also anti-inflammatory activity in virus-infected cells.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3024156/?report=reader Complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of the common cold. Jan 2011. For treatment, Echinacea purpurea is the most consistently useful variety; effective in 5 of 6 trials.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2785784/ Anti-viral properties and mode of action of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract against highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus (H5N1, H7N7) and swine-origin H1N1 (S-OIV). 13 Nov 2009. Flu virus inactivated in cell culture. The extract inhibited the receptor binding activity of the virus, i.e. interferes with the viral entry into cells. Echinacea useful against replication and dissemination.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3098742/ Management of up/respiratory tract infections in children. Mar-Apr 2008. 2 of the most commonly used and studied herbs are Echinacea and Andrographis paniculata, both of which are believed to be immunostimulants. Echinacea decreased the odds of developing the common cold by 58% and the duration of a cold by 1.4 days but potential for drug interaction, rash and anaphylaxis. Iron supplementation is remarkably effective when iron deficiency is endemic. Hand washing significantly reduces the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in children.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16437427 Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. 25 Jan 2006. Sixteen trials. No effect for prevention. For treatment, a significant effect was reported in 9 studies, a trend in 1, and no difference in 6.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2640516/pdf/jnma00873-0052.pdf Antimicrobial and immune modulatory legacy of Echinacea and garlic. Tremendous antimicrobial, especially antiviral activity of compounds in both herbs. Profound effects on the immune system.
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/04/190423133644.htm Elderberry compounds could help minimize flu symptoms, study suggests. 23 Apr 2019. Compounds from elderberries can directly inhibit the virus's entry and replication in human cells, and can help strengthen a person's immune response to the virus. Also stimulated the release of certain cytokines, used to coordinate a more efficient response against the invading pathogen. Elderberry's antiviral activity can be attributed to its anthocyanidin compounds.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30670267 Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) supplementation effectively treats up/respiratory symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials. Feb 2019. Elderberry substantially reduced up/respiratory symptoms. Safer alternative to prescription drugs for cold and influenza.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4848651/ Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Apr 2016. Less colds (12 vs. 17 in placebo), shorter duration of cold (57 vs 117 days) and lower symptom score (247 vs 583).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24409980 An evidence-based systematic review of elderberry and elderflower (Sambucus nigra) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. 10 Jan 2014.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22972323 Anti-influenza virus effects of elderberry juice and its fractions. 7 Sep 2012. Strong effect on IFV-infected mice and suppressed viral, and increased level of neutralizing antibody, as well as IgA. Strong defense against IFV infection. Beneficial effect by the stimulating immune response and preventing viral infection.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3056848/ Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses. 25 Feb 2011. Elderberry has antimicrobial activity against bacteria and inhibitory effect on the propagation of human pathogenic influenza viruses.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15080016 Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. Mar-Apr 2004. 15 ml of elderberry 4 times a day for 5 days. Symptoms relieved on average 4 days earlier and less medication.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11399518 The effect of Sambucol, a black elderberry-based, natural product, on the production of human cytokines: I. Inflammatory cytokines. Apr-Jun 2001. Effective in vitro against 10 strains of influenza virus. Reduced the duration of flu symptoms to 3-4 days. Higher antibody levels and inflammatory cytokines... In addition to its antiviral properties, Elderberry Extract activates the immune system by increasing inflammatory cytokine production.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9395631 Inhibition of several strains of influenza virus in vitro and reduction of symptoms by an elderberry extract (Sambucus nigra L.) during an outbreak of influenza B Panama. Winter 1995. Sambucol reduced hemagglutination and inhibited replication of all strain of influenza viruses tested. Significant improvement of the symptoms, including fever, in 93.3% of the cases within 2 days (vs 6 days). Complete cure achieved within 2 to 3 days in nearly 90% of the SAM-treated group vs >6 days.
https://fullscript.com/protocol/cold-and-flu-support Cold and Flu Support: 400mg, once /day, minimum 8-16 weeks in healthy adults as a preventative measure. Reduces duration of colds or respiratory infections by 5-6 days, incidence by 25%, and risk of respiratory symptoms by 48%, reduced severity for sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, nasal congestion, malaise, fever, headache, hoarseness, earaches, and cough.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19592479 North American (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Preparations for Prevention of the Common Cold in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review. 2011. Reduced the number of colds by 25%. Shortened duration of colds or ARIs by 6.2 days. When taken preventatively for durations of 8-16 weeks.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18676527 Safety and tolerability of North American ginseng extract in the treatment of pediatric up/respiratory tract infection: a phase II randomized, controlled trial of 2 dosing schedules. Aug 2008. The frequency, severity and adverse events were not significantly different.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16566675 Efficacy of COLD-fX in the prevention of respiratory symptoms in community-dwelling adults: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial. Mar 2006. No difference in first 2 months. During the last 2 months, significantly fewer incidence of ARI (32% vs placebo 62%), duration shorter (5.6 days vs 12.6 days). Reduced relative risk and duration of respiratory symptoms by 48% and 55%, respectively.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16247099 Efficacy of an extract of North American ginseng containing poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides for preventing up/respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial. 25 Oct 2005. Less colds in ginseng group (0.68 v. 0.93). The proportion of subjects with 2 or more colds : 10.0% v. 22.8%. Symptom score (77.5 v. 112.3) and duration (10.8 v. 16.5) better with North American ginseng.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27815461 Antiviral and Antitumor Activity of Licorice Root Extracts. 2016. Alkaline extract of licorice root had higher anti-HIV activity than water extracts, but water extract had higher anti-HSV activity. The flavonoid-rich fraction had tumor-specific cytotoxicity.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4629407/ The antiviral and antimicrobial activities of licorice, a widely-used Chinese herb. Antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and other activities of liquorice. Potential therapeutic effects as an antiviral or an antimicrobial agent.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23643542 Water extract of licorice had anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines. Jul 2013. Licorice (Glycyrrhiza) is a common ingredient of prescriptions which have been proved to inhibit infection of human respiratory syncytial virus. Radix effective against HRSV infection. Radix Glycyrrhizae inhibited HRSV by preventing viral attachment, internalization, and by stimulating IFN secretion.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386921 Glycyrrhizin inhibits highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in human macrophages. 13 Apr 2010. A glycyrrhizin preparation complement the arsenal of potential drugs for the treatment of H5N1 disease.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19416738 Glycyrrhizin inhibits influenza A virus uptake into the cell. 3 May 2009. glycyrrhizin (GL), the main active component of licorice roots, protects cells from infection with influenza A virus. Reduction in the number of infected cells, reduction in the CCID50 titer by 90%. Antiviral effect limited to an early step in the virus replication cycle. Reduced virus uptake in various GL-treated cells.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12814717 Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice roots, and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus. Jun 2003. We assessed the antiviral potential of ribavirin, 6-azauridine, pyrazofurin, mycophenolic acid, and glycyrrhizin against coronavirus from patients with SARS. Of all the compounds, glycyrrhizin was the most active in inhibiting replication of the SARS-associated virus.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9055991 Glycyrrhizin, an active component of licorice roots, reduces morbidity and mortality of mice infected with lethal doses of influenza virus. Mar 1997. Significantly lower virus titers in lung tissues. GR may protect mice exposed to a lethal amount of influenza virus through the stimulation of IFN-gamma production by T cells.
N-acetylcysteine (or NAC) and glutathione
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6250560/ N-acetylcysteine improves oxidative stress and inflammatory response in patients with community acquired pneumonia. Nov 2018. Treatment with NAC may help to reduce oxidative and inflammatory damage in pneumonia patients.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19732754 N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) inhibits virus replication and expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in A549 cells infected with highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus. Feb 2010. NAC inhibits H5N1 replication and H5N1-induced production of pro-inflammatory molecules. Antioxidants like NAC represent a potential additional treatment option that could be considered in the case of an influenza A virus pandemic.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15798812 Effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on lymphocyte apoptosis, lymphocyte viability, TNF-alpha and IL-8 in HIV-infected patients undergoing anti-retroviral treatment. Oct 2004. N-acetyl-L-cysteine reduces human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and it ameliorates immunological reactivity.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12654482 Inhibition of influenza infection by glutathione. Apr 2003. Infection by RNA virus induces oxidative stress in host cells. The antioxidant glutathione offers protection against production of active virus particles. Inhibited expression of viral matrix protein and caspase activation. Decreased viral titer in both lung and trachea. GSH has an anti-influenza activity. Oxidative stress or other conditions that deplete GSH in the epithelium of the oral, nasal, and upper airway may, therefore, enhance susceptibility to influenza infection.
Other herbs and supplements
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27055821/ Prevention and Treatment of Influenza, Influenza-Like Illness, and Common Cold by Herbal, Complementary, and Natural Therapies. 2017. Several herbal remedies were found effective included maoto, licorice roots, antiwei, North American ginseng, berries, Echinacea, plants extracted carnosic acid, pomegranate, guava tea, and Bai Shao. Other effective for prevention or treatment: Oral zinc, vitamin C, probiotics. Earthing might have accelerates immune response following vaccination.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07315724.2002.10719248 Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases. Jun 2013. Omega-3s possess the most potent immunomodulatory activities, and EPA and DHA are more biologically potent than ALA. They have anti-inflammatory properties with significant benefit, including decreased disease activity and a lowered use of anti-inflammatory drugs.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3729712/ Astragalus polysaccharide enhances immunity and inhibits H9N2 avian influenza virus in vitro and in vivo. Jun 2013. APS treatment reduces H9N2 AIV replication and promotes early humoral immune responses.
https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/134/1/257S/4688304 Carotenoid Action on the Immune Response. Jan 2004. Ability of dietary carotenes to prevent infections. Certain carotenoids, acting as antioxidants, can potentially reduce the toxic effects of reactive oxygen species, implicated in the etiology of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Possible mechanism by which carotenoids regulate immune function and cancer.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5976340/ Chronic constipation. A review of literature. May 2018. Estimated average prevalence of constipation in adults = 16% worldwide, 33.5% over 60 years old. Causes: diet, behavioral, biological and pharmaceutical factors. Low fiber intake, inadequate water intake, sedentary lifestyle, irritable bowel syndrome, failure to respond to urge to defecate. Ahigh-fiber diet can increase stool weight, resulting in a decreased colon transit time, while poor-fiber diet induces constipation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5446139/ Management of chronic constipation in adults. Aug 2016. Chronic constipation has an estimated prevalence of up to 24%. Increased intake of dietary fibre, fluid, and exercise should be attempted in most patients. CC associated with low intake of fibre and fluid. Fibres retain water in the colon and add bulk to the stools and increased intake can reduce transit time and alleviate symptoms. Side effects include gas, mainly with soluble fibres. Unless dehydration, increase of water intake does not reduce constipation. 2 litres of water a day enhance positive effects of dietary fibre. Constipation strongly associated with immobility. Physical activity stimulates motility, reducing transit time. Moderate physical activity 30–60 min per day improves stool consistency.
https://gi.org/topics/constipation-and-defection-problems/Constipation and Defecation Problems. Updated Mar 2016. Many with as few as three bowel movements each week are healthy. Constipation can also mean straining, small hard stools or a sense of incomplete bowels. Dehydration, changes in diet and activity, and certain drugs are frequently to blame to slow transit of stool.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3531555/ American Gastroenterological Association Technical Review on Constipation. Jan 2013. Rome III criteria: 2 of the following symptoms for more than 1/4 of defecations during the past 3 months: Straining, Lumpy or hard stools, Sensation of incomplete evacuation, Sensation of obstruction; <3 defecations/wk. Median prevalence of constipation of 16% in adults and 33.5% over 60. Risk factors: medications, stress, low dietary fiber intake in some but not other studies. No evidence that constipation treated by increased fluid intake unless dehydration. Increased physical activity is associated with less constipation, gas clearance and reduced bloating. Some probiotics may accelerate colonic transit, but limited data. Soluble (psyllium or ispaghula) but not insoluble dietary fiber (wheat bran) supplements improve constipation. Psyllium, soluble dietary fiber improved stool frequency, straining, stool consistency, and sense of incomplete evacuation. Soluble fiber improved constipation. Psyllium works, but not bran, but can result in constipation or diarrhea. No immediate response, follow program for several weeks.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3206560/ Epidemiology and burden of chronic constipation. Oct 2011. Chronic constipation can affect from 2% to 27% of the population. Most use prescribed or over-the-counter medication to improve their condition. Constipation is more common in older patients.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15089911 Epidemiology of constipation in North America: a systematic review. Apr 2004. Estimated prevalence of constipation in North America range from 12% to 19%. It increases with age, particularly after age 65.
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/urine-color/symptoms-causes/syc-20367333 Urine color. Oct 2017. Normal urine color varies depending on how much water you drink. The more you drink, the clearer your urine. Severe dehydration can produce urine the color of amber.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24420006 Management of faecal incontinence and constipation in adults with central neurological diseases. Jan 2014. Limited evidence in favour of a bulk-forming laxative (psyllium) and an isosmotic laxative compared to no treatment. Evidence for carbonated (rather than tap) water.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23551139 Influence of coffee (Coffea arabica) and galacto-oligosaccharide consumption on intestinal microbiota and the host responses. Jun 2013. Coffee can regulate gut microbiota.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21551998 Effects of carbonated water intake on constipation in elderly patients following a cerebrovascular accident. Apr 2011. The intake of carbonated water is effective against constipation in elderly patients.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21067233 Conceptual study on maillardized dietary fiber in coffee. Dec 2010. The content of coffee melanoidins includes a substantial part of dietary fiber.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19217682 Impact of coffee consumption on the gut microbiota: a human volunteer study. Mar 2009. The consumption of coffee increases the activity and/or numbers of beneficial Bifidobacterium spp.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16028566 The importance of good hydration for the prevention of chronic diseases. Jun 2005. Positive effects of good hydration for constipation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2780140/ Medical Treatment of Constipation. May 2005. patients should respond to the call to defecate. Increases in physical activity and fluid intake appear not to relieve constipation except in situations of dehydration.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14681719 Mild dehydration: a risk factor of constipation? Dec 2003. The most important factors in constipation are reduced physical activity and inadequate dietary intake of fibres and fluids. The improvement of constipation by increasing water intake is effective only when fluid consumption is lower-than-normal (~2500 ml per day).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12352219 Effects of carbonated water on functional dyspepsia and constipation. Sep 2002. Constipation decreased significantly after carbonated water and was not significantly different with tap water.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9926630 Constipation: an approach to diagnosis, treatment, referral. Jan 1999. When a patient reports constipation, treatment with exercise, hydration, fiber supplementation, and mild laxatives is often effective.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10499460 Coffee and gastrointestinal function: facts and fiction. A review. 1999. Coffee stimulates gallbladder contraction and colonic motor activity.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9581985 Is coffee a colonic stimulant? Feb 1998. Caffeinated coffee stimulates colonic motor activity, 60% stronger than water and 23% stronger than decaffeinated coffee.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2338272 Effect of coffee on distal colon function. Apr 1990. 29% claimed that coffee induced a desire to defecate. Increase in motility index within 4 minutes after ingestion of both regular and decaffeinated coffee in the responders and lasting at least 30 minutes. No increase in the motility after a drink of hot water.
Balance your fibre intake
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5976340/ Chronic constipation. A review of literature. May 2018. A high-fiber diet can increase stool weight, resulting in a decreased colon transit time, while poor-fiber diet induces constipation. Increased fiber diet could improve symptoms in patients with normal transit function but not in constipated patients. Increasing fiber consumption may worsen symptoms due to gas. Soluble fiber (i.e., psyllium or ispaghula), but not insoluble fiber (wheat Bran) is associated with the improvement of constipation. Soluble fiber improved constipation symptoms in IBS. But several studies reported that fiber supplements could improve bowel symptoms.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27170558 Systematic review with meta-analysis: effect of fibre supplementation on chronic idiopathic constipation in adults. Jul 2016. Fibre is moderately effective, but also causes moderate gastrointestinal side effects. Further research required.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27125883 Randomised clinical trial: mixed soluble/insoluble fibre vs. psyllium for chronic constipation. Jul 2016. Mixed fibre and psyllium were equally efficacious in improving constipation and QoL. Mixed fibre was more effective in relieving flatulence, bloating and dissolved better.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26514720 Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Health Implications of Dietary Fiber. Nov 2015. The Adequate Intake for fiber is 14 g total fiber per 1,000 kcal, or 25 g for adult women and 38 g for adult men.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4415970/ Evidence-Based Approach to Fiber Supplements and Clinically Meaningful Health Benefits, Part 2 Mar 2015. Despite a general consensus that fiber is “good for you,” difference between replacement with dietary fiber from whole foods and a supplements. Only a minority of fiber products provide health benefits. Insoluble fiber provides a mechanical stimulus (wheat bran—softens hard stool in constipation but can exacerbate diarrhea and IBS), whereas a soluble, nonfermented gel-forming fiber retains its high water-holding capacity throughout the large bowel to provide a stool normalizing effect (psyllium—softens hard stool in constipation, firms loose/liquid stool in diarrhea, normalizes stool form in IBS). Wrt fiber supplement, only a soluble nonfermenting, gel-forming fiber has been clinically proven to provide all of the health benefits. Recommended fibre levels of 25 g/d for adult women, 38 g/d for adult men.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4291444/ Diets for Constipation. Dec 2014. Fiber increases stool bulk and accelerates colon transit; Fiber produces short-chain fatty acids that increase osmotic load and accelerate colon transit; Short-chain fatty acids decrease pH, which accelerates colon transit; and fiber contains water. All these improve stool consistency and amount. ① Soluble, highly fermentable non-starch polysaccharide fiber (resistant starch, pectin, inulin, and guar gum). ② Intermediate soluble and fermentable fiber (psyllium, ispaghula and oats). ③ Insoluble, slowly fermentable fiber (wheat bran, lignin (flax), and fruits and vegetables). ④ Insoluble, non-fermentable fiber (cellulose, sterculia, and methylcellulose). Generally, water-insoluble fiber is helpful for constipation. Higher dietary fiber intake (fruits, legumes, and vegetables) is associated with a lower incidence of constipation. Water-insoluble fiber with wheat bran and rye bread improves bowel movement frequency and defecation difficulty significantly. However, the water-soluble fiber (psyllium and glucomannan) results are conflicting. Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition do not support the use of fiber supplements in the treatment of functional constipation. Probiotic Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli produce acids that lower pH in the colon and enhance peristalsis. The altered microbiota may improve gut transit. Some probiotics stimulate motility and peristalsis (Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus). Some probiotics are helpful for diarrhea, others are useful for constipation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23545709 Fiber and functional gastrointestinal disorders. May 2013. Soluble supplement such as ispaghula/psyllium is best supported by the available evidence. Even when used judiciously, fiber can exacerbate abdominal distension, flatulence, constipation, and diarrhea.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23326148 Effect of dietary fiber on constipation: a meta analysis. Dec 2012. Dietary fiber intake can obviously increase stool frequency in patients with constipation. It does not obviously improve stool consistency, treatment success, laxative use and painful defecation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3435786/ Stopping or reducing dietary fiber intake reduces constipation and its associated symptoms. Sep 2012. Constipation and associated symptoms can be effectively reduced by stopping or even lowering the intake of dietary fiber. Of those who stopped fiber completely, the bowel frequency increased from one motion in 3.75 d to one motion in 1.0 d; those with reduced fiber intake had increased bowel frequency from a mean of one motion per 4.19 d to one motion per 1.9 d; those who remained on a high fiber diet continued to have a mean of one motion per 6.83 d before and after consultation. For no fiber, reduced fiber and high fiber groups, respectively, symptoms of bloating were present in 0%, 31.3% and 100% and straining to pass stools occurred in 0%, 43.8% and 100%.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21737769 Chronic constipation: an evidence-based review. Jul-Aug 2011. The standard advice of increasing dietary fibers, fluids, and exercise for relieving chronic constipation will only benefit patients with true deficiency.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21332763 Systematic review: the effects of fibre in the management of chronic idiopathic constipation. Apr 2011. Soluble fibre led to improvements in global symptoms (86.5% vs. 47.4%), straining (55.6% vs. 28.6%), pain on defaecation, and stool consistency, an increase in the mean number of stools per week (3.8 vs 2.9). Evidence for any benefit of insoluble fibre was conflicting.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19335713/ Health benefits of dietary fiber. Apr 2009. The recommended dietary fiber intakes for children and adults are 14 g/1000 kcal per US Department of Health and Human Services.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9663731 Psyllium is superior to docusate sodium for treatment of chronic constipation. May 1998. Psyllium is superior to docusate sodium for softening stools by increasing stool water content, and has greater overall laxative efficacy for constipation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7912305/ Bran and irritable bowel syndrome: time for reappraisal. Jul 1994. 55% of patients were made worse by bran whereas only 10% had found it helpful. With the exception of fruit, other forms of dietary fibre were not as detrimental. All symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome were exacerbated by bran. Excessive consumption of bran may actually be creating irritable bowel syndrome.
Eat your fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25889554 Dual effectiveness of Flaxseed in constipation and diarrhea: Possible mechanism. Jul 2015. Flaxseed oil and mucilage exhibit laxative and antidiarrheal activities.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25109788 Systematic review: the effect of prunes on gastrointestinal function. Oct 2014. In constipation, prunes superior to psyllium for improving stool frequency and consistency.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23394990 Kiwifruit modulation of gastrointestinal motility. 2013. Kiwifruit are a highly effective to promote laxation and gastrointestinal motility.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24090144 Dried plums and their products: composition and health effects--an updated review. 2013. Direct effects include prevention of constipation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21445854 Ripening-associated changes in the amounts of starch and non-starch polysaccharides and their contributions to fruit softening in three banana cultivars. Jun 2011. Banana softening is a consequence of starch degradation and the accumulation of soluble sugars in a cultivar-dependent manner.
https://www.nature.com/articles/nrgastro.2011.82 Dried plums (prunes) for the treatment of constipation. Jun 2011. Superior effects of dried plums (prunes) over psyllium in the treatment of constipation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21323688 Randomised clinical trial: dried plums (prunes) vs. psyllium for constipation. Apr 2011. Dried plums more effective than psyllium for the treatment of constipation, and should be considered as a first line therapy.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21091293 Effects of chicory inulin in constipated elderly people: a double-blind controlled trial. Mar 2011. Inulin group reported better digestion and reduced defecation difficulties. Supplementation with 15 g inulin improves constipation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92765/ Evaluation of the Nutritional and Metabolic Effects of Aloe vera. 2011. Aloe vera has a long history of traditional use for constipation. Its laxative effect is well established, stronger than the stimulant laxative phenolphthalein. Improve a range of constipation indicators (bowel movement frequency, consistency of stools, and laxative dependence). Lack of sufficient data to establish its safety for use as a laxative.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20591206 A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to establish the bifidogenic effect of a very-long-chain inulin extracted from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) in healthy human subjects. Oct 2010. Daily consumption of artichoke exerted a pronounced prebiotic effect on the human microbiota composition.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11401245 Chemical composition and potential health effects of prunes: a functional food? May 2001. The laxative action of prune explained by their high sorbitol content. Prunes contain large amounts of phenolic compounds, which may aid in the laxative action.
Add probiotics and prebiotics to your meals
https://www.wageningenacademic.com/doi/10.3920/BM2017.0103 Effect of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 on loose stools in healthy volunteers. Feb 2018. C-3102 significantly improved loose stool consistency and frequency.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26232505 Effect of 4'galactooligosaccharide on constipation symptoms. Nov-Dec 2015. Galactooligosaccharide increased bowel movement frequency; relieved straining; and decreased in stool consistency. No side effects.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4288092/ Alteration of Gut Microbiota and Efficacy of Probiotics in Functional Constipation. Jan 2015. Patients with FC exhibit different compositions of gut microbiota. Symptoms improvements with VSL#3 (frequency, consistency, bloating) in up to 70% of patients. Gut microbiota associated with GI motility. Some probiotics have been shown to stimulate intestinal motility, may be by decreasing the proliferation of methanogens. However, other probiotics decrease bowel movements, and improve loose stool/diarrhea. But high heterogeneity. More research needed.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25599776 Effects of a kefir supplement on symptoms, colonic transit, and bowel satisfaction score in patients with chronic constipation: a pilot study. Dec 2014. Kefir has positive effects on constipation, improves bowel satisfaction and accelerates transit.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25099542 The effect of probiotics on functional constipation in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Oct 2014. Probiotics may improve gut transit time, stool frequency and consistency, with beneficial effects of B. lactis in particular. More research required.
https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/probiotics-may-ease-constipation-201408217377 Probiotics may ease constipation. Aug 2014. Probiotics increased the number of weekly bowel movements by 1.3, and helped soften stools, making them easier to pass. Bifidobacterium appeared to be the most effective. But not enough evidence to recommend a specific probiotic for constipation. Small studies with widely variable results.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25056655 Effect of yogurt containing polydextrose, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study in chronic constipation. Jul 2014. Yogurt with polydextrose, B. lactis HN019 and L. acidophilus NCFM® significantly shortened transit time after two weeks.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4000641/ The Effect of Probiotics on Childhood Constipation: A Randomized Controlled Double Blind Clinical Trial. 2014. Probiotics increased the frequency and improved the consistency at the end of 4th week.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3705355/ Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits. Apr 2013. Inulin and oligofructose, lactulose, and resistant starch are prebiotics, and increase Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacteria. Galactooligosaccharides, transgalactooligosaccharides, polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3206558/ Chronic constipation: Current treatment options. Oct 2011. Chronic constipation has been reported in 15% to 25% of the general population. Rome III criteria: 25% of bowel movements with at least 2 of the following symptoms: straining; hard or lumpy stools; a sense of incomplete evacuation; a sense of obstruction; or fewer than 3 defecations per week in the previous 3 months. Probiotics for the management of chronic constipation, especially Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, to improve stool consistency and frequency and all symptoms. Unclear whether any one particular strain of probiotic is more effective than another. Further research needed.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19300120 Probiotics and functional gastrointestinal disorders in children. Apr 2009. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria increase stool frequency and decrease consistency in normal individuals. But the evidence for efficacy is limited. Fiber supplements, lactose-free diets, and lactobacillus supplementation are effective. Several studies with Lactobacillus GG showed negative results. Bifidobacterium animalis has been shown to be effective.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2607002/ Galacto-oligosaccharides and bowel function. Jun 2007. Oligosaccharides act as soluble fibre and have a bifidogenic effect. Galacto-oligosaccharides resembling oligosaccharides occurring naturally in human milk may relieve the symptoms of constipation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16169298/ Alterations in the colonic flora and intestinal permeability and evidence of immune activation in chronic constipation. Nov 2005. Concentrations of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus significantly lower in constipated patients; potentially pathogenic bacteria and/or fungi increased. Constipation associated with changes in flora, intestinal permeability and the immune response.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15198901 Supplementation of milk formula with galacto-oligosaccharides improves intestinal micro-flora and fermentation in term infants. Jun 2004. Supplementing infant formula with GOS at 0.24 g/dl stimulates the growth of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli in the intestine and stools, similar to human milk. Stool frequency significantly increased with GOS supplemented formula and human milk.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9895419 Galacto-oligosaccharides relieve constipation in elderly people. 1998. The defecation frequency per week was higher with GOS and easier defecation, but responses differ individually.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9742466 Increased fecal frequency and gastrointestinal symptoms following ingestion of galacto-oligosaccharide-containing yogurt. Jun 1998. Defecation frequency increased with GOS, but flatulence as well.
Supplement with magnesium citrate
https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-998/magnesium Magnesium. Extracted Mar 2020. Magnesium is most commonly used for constipation.
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322588 Does magnesium citrate work for constipation? Jul 2018. Magnesium citrate works by pulling water into the intestines, which reduces the stool dryness, making it easier to pass. Similar to osmotic laxatives. Magnesium citrate is a simple solution to constipation. But regular use may cause the body to become dependent, making it difficult for a person to pass stools without using it.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10634161 Magnesium citrate-bisacodyl regimen proves better than castor oil for colonoscopic preparation. Dec 1999. The cleansing effect of the magnesium citrate-bisacodyl was significantly better than that of castor oil in the colon.
Avoid gluten and dairy products
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-celiac_gluten_sensitivity Non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Updated 27 Feb 2020. NCGS has prevalence rates between 0.5–13% in the population. Gastrointestinal symptoms may include: abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea or constipation, nausea, aerophagia, flatulence, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and aphthous stomatitis.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6630947/ Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: A Review. May 2019. Grain food consumption is a trigger of gluten related disorders, including non-celiac gluten sensitivity, with symptoms similar to other gluten-related diseases, IBS and Crohn’s. NCGS prevalence up to 13% of the population.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6182669/ Recent advances in understanding non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Oct 2018. NCGS characterized by symptoms such as bloating and pain in the abdomen, diarrhea, nausea, aphthous stomatitis, alternating bowel habits, and constipation. According to self-reported data, the prevalence rate of NCGS ranges between 0.5% and 13% in the population.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4403030/ An unusual cause of constipation in a patient without any underlying disorders. Spring 2015. NCGS is a cause of constipation. Patient with long standing constipation not responding to any conservative treatment but significant response with gluten free diet.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3533146/ The Role of Cow's Milk Allergy in Pediatric Chronic Constipation: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Dec 2012. Constipation can be a manifestation of cow's milk allergy. An elimination diet is advisable in children unresponsive to laxative treatment.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3401057/ Lactose intolerance: diagnosis, genetic, and clinical factors. Jul 2012. ~ 75% of the world’s population loses this ability to digest lactose at some point. Some patients can experience constipation due to decreased intestinal motility, possibly caused by production of methane.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17956597/ Review article: lactose intolerance in clinical practice--myths and realities. Jan 2008. ~ 70% of the world population has hypolactasia, often undiagnosed. Symptoms of lactose intolerance include abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and diarrhoea.